<% Option Explicit %> <% Const filePath = "data/endorse.txt" Const datePath = "data/endodate.txt" Const ForRead = 1 Dim fileSysObj, ts, s, dateTime, intCount, i, j, intTempStore, myUrl, endUrl, gType Const TriStateFalse = 0 gType = Request("gType") Dim raListArray() intCount = 0 Set fileSysObj = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") If (fileSysObj.FileExists(Server.MapPath(filePath))) Then Set ts = fileSysObj.OpenTextFile(Server.MapPath(filePath), ForRead, TriStateFalse) Do While Not ts.AtEndOfLine s = ts.ReadLine ReDim Preserve raListArray(intCount) ' resize the array raListArray(intCount) = s intCount = intCount + 1 Loop End If ts.Close If (fileSysObj.FileExists(Server.MapPath(datePath))) Then Set ts = fileSysObj.OpenTextFile(Server.MapPath(datePath), ForRead, TriStateFalse) dateTime = ts.ReadLine End If ts.Close For i = 0 To UBound(raListArray) - 1 For j = i To UBound(raListArray) If raListArray(i) > raListArray(j) Then intTempStore = raListArray(i) raListArray(i) = raListArray(j) raListArray(j) = intTempStore End If Next 'j Next 'i %> Grazing Impacts on Bird Species

Livestock Grazing: Impacts on Birds

A Review of Grazing Impacts on Birds, George Wuerthner

Walsberg, G. E. 2005. Cattle grazing in a national forest greatly reduces nesting success in a ground-nesting sparrow. Condor 107(3) [abstract].

A new study by Earnst, Ballard, and Dobkin, published in 2004 as part of a Forest Service general technical report, found that, of those songbird species that exhibited any measurable change in abundance, approximately three-quarters of songbirds on Hart Mountain and Sheldon National Wildlife Refuges increased in abundance since the removal of domestic livestock from both refuges in 1990.

Earnst, S. L., J. A. Ballard, D. S. Dobkin. 2004. Riparian songbird abundance a decade after cattle removal on Hart Mountain and Sheldon National Wildlife Refuges. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-191. USDA-Forest Service. (final proof) (in press).

A study on the response of breeding birds to the removal of cattle from a riparian area in the Southwest was published in Conservation Biology in April 2003.

Krueper, D., J. Bart, T. D. Rich. 2003. Response of vegetation and breeding birds to the removal of cattle on the San Pedro River, Arizona (U.S.A.). Cons. Biol. 17(2): 607-615.

Of 61 bird species for which sufficient data were collected, mean detections per kilometer increased for 42 species, 26 significantly, and decreased for 19 species, 8 significantly. The number of individuals of all avian species detected on surveys increased each year from 103 per kilometer in 1986 to 221 per kilometer in 1991, an average annual increase of 23 percent. The largest increases occurred in riparian species, open-cup nesters, Neotropical migrants and insectivores. Results suggest that removing cattle from riparian areas in the southwestern United States can have profound benefits for breeding birds.

Bock, C. E., Birds and Bovines: Effects of LIvestock Grazing on Birds in the West. Welfare Ranching: The Subsidized Destruction of the American West.

Walker, L. Impact of grazing on 153 species of Southwestern birds. Prepared for Western Watersheds Project, ID.

Witzeman, B. 2001. Grazing threatens Arizona's wildlife. Cactus Wren-dition (Mar-Apr 2001). Maricopa Audubon Society, AZ.

BEFORE and AFTER Grazing Diagram by Karen Klitz, featured in Witzeman, B. 2001. An educational tool about cattle grazing. Cactus Wren-dition (Mar-Apr 2001). Maricopa Audubon Society, AZ.

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