Resources


      Essential, Foundational References

Donahue, D. 1999. THE WESTERN RANGE REVISITED: REMOVING LIVESTOCK FROM PUBLIC LANDS TO CONSERVE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY. Univ. Oklahoma Press. Norman, OK.

Professor Debra Donahue holds a J.D., and a B.S. and M.S. degrees in wildlife biology. She currently teaches law at the University of Wyoming College of Law. Her landmark book uses history, ecology, law and economics to support the conclusion that livestock grazing should end on arid public lands.

Andy Kerr, Mark Salvo, Book Review: The Western Range Revisited

Jacobs, L. 1991. WASTE OF THE WEST: PUBLIC LANDS RANCHING. Lynn Jacobs. Tucson, AZ.

Packed with photographs and text, the most complete reference available on livestock production and its costs. Most (soon to be all) of Waste of the West is available online.

Fleischner, T. L. 1994. Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America. Conserv. Biol. 8: 629-644.

A classic accounting of the multiple impacts of livestock production on rangelands; includes an extensive bibliography.

Steinfeld, H. et al. 2006. Livestocks' Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization; Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative. Rome, Italy. (4.75 mb)

This important report details the "very substantial contribution of animal agriculture to climate change and air pollution, to land, soil and water degradation, and to the reduction of biodiversity.

Belsky, A. J. 1987. The effects of grazing: confounding ecosystem, community, and organism scales. Amer. Natur. 127: 870-892.

Belsky, A. J., A. Matzke, S. Uselman. 1999. Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. J. Soil and Water Conserv. 54(1): 419-431.

The best review available on the impacts of livestock grazing on riparian resources. Belsky, et al. reviewed more than 100 papers on the subject and discovered that no study showed riparian areas benefited from the presence of livestock, and most showed damage. Available at http://www.onda.org/library/papers/index.html.

Ferguson, D. and N. Ferguson. 1983. SACRED COWS AT THE PUBLIC TROUGH. Maverick Publ. Bend, OR.

Donahue, D. L. 2005. Western grazing: the capture of grass, ground and government. Environmental Law 35: 721-806.

      Voluntary Federal Grazing Permit Buyout

Salvo, M. and A, Kerr. 2001. The National Public Lands Grazing Campaign. Wild Earth 11 (3/4): 83-85.

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, A Political Solution to Public Lands Grazing: Voluntary Grazing Permit Buyout

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Position Paper: Why Conservationists should Support Buying Out Federal Grazing Permits

Salvo, M. and A, Kerr. 2001. Permits for cash: A fair and equitable resolution to the public land range war. Ranglands 23(1): 22-24.

      Public Lands Grazing Permittees

Genter, B. J. and J. A. Tanaka. 2002. Classifying federal public land grazing permittees. J. Range Management 55: 2-11.

      Public Lands Grazing Economics

Moscowitz, K. and C. Romaniello. 2002. Assessing the Full Cost of the Federal Grazing Program. Center for Biological Diversity. Tucson, AZ.

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Economic Facts of Public Lands Grazing

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Federal Livestock Grazing AUMs: B(u)y the Numbers

Power, T. M. 1996. LOST LANDSCAPES AND FAILED ECONOMIES. Island Press. Washington, DC.

Professor Thomas Powers is Chair of the Economics Department at the University of Montana and a pioneer of natural resources economics. He devotes one chapter of Lost Landscapes to the economic contributions of public lands ranching to state and local economies, which he demonstrates to be practically nonexistent.

Holechek, J. L. and K. Hess Jr. 1995. The Emergency Feed Program. Rangelands 17(4): 133-136.

This article describes just one of many subsidies that public lands ranchers receive.

USDI-Bureau of Land Management, USDA-Forest Service. 1994. Rangeland Reform '94 Draft Environmental Impact Statement. USDI-BLM. Washington, DC.

Ignoring the false assumptions and platitudes in this document, it admits that public lands makes almost no economic contribution to even rural communities.

Torell, L. A. and S. A. Bailey. 2000. Is the profit motive an important determinant of grazing land use and rancher motive? Western Agric. Econ. Assoc. Annual Mtg.; June 29-July 1, 2000; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 26 pages.

Abstract: We build our economic models and estimate grazing policy impacts based on the standard economic model of profit maximization. Yet, over 30 years of research and observation has shown that, for many, consumptive and quality of life values are the most important reasons for the purchase of western ranches. Ranch buyers want an investment they can touch, feel and enjoy, and they have historically been willing to accept low returns from the livestock operation. Profit maximization appears to be an inadequate model for explaining rancher behavior; in estimating what impacts altered public land policies will have; and in de-scribing grazing land use and value. In this study, only 27% of the value of New Mexico ranches in the most productive rangeland areas was explained by livestock production potential. Economists and policy-makers must take the influences of both traditional livestock production and quality of life values into account when determining appropriate policies for western rangelands.

Torell, L. A., N. R. Rimbey, J. A. Tanaka, S. A. Bailey. 2001. The lack of profit motive for ranching: implications for policy analysis. Proc. Current Issues in Rangeland Resource Economics Symp. Western Reg. Coord. Comm. on Rangeland Economics WCC-55. New Mexico State University Res. Rep. Ser. 737. New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM. 12 pages.

Abstract: The economic impact of changing land-use policies has traditionally been estimated using the standard economic model of profit maximization. Ranchers are assumed to maximize profit and to adjust production strategies so as to continue maximizing profit with altered policies. Yet, nearly 30 years of research and observation have shown that family, tradition, and the desirable way of life are the most important factors in the ranch purchase decision - not profit. Ranch buyers want an investment they can touch, feel, and enjoy, and they historically have been willing to accept relatively low returns from the livestock production. Profit maximization appears to be an inadequate model for explaining rancher behavior, describing grazing land use, and estimating the impacts of altered public land policies. In this paper, we investigate the relative importance of livestock production income and desirable lifestyle attributes in determining the market value of western ranches, and we explore what this means for economic models and policy analysis.

      Public Lands Grazing Fees

Torell, L. A., N. R. Rimbey, E. T. Bartlett, L. W. Van Tassell, J. A. Tanaka. 2001. An evaluation of the PRIA grazing fee formula. Proc. Current Issues in Rangeland Resource Economics Symp. Western Reg. Coord. Comm. on Rangeland Economics WCC-55. New Mexico State University Res. Rep. Ser. 737. New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM. 10 pages.

Abstract: The federal grazing fee is currently set using the Public Rangeland Improvement Act (PRIA) fee formula established in 1978 and modified in 1986. The formula is adjusted annually using indices of private land grazing lease rates (Forage Value Index, FVI), prices received for beef cattle (Beef Cattle Price Index, BCPI), and costs of beef production (Prices Paid Index, PPI). The FVI tracks price movement in the private forage market and was the only index originally proposed to be included in the fee formula. Public land ranchers and an Interdepartmental Grazing Fee Technical Committee assigned to study grazing fee alternatives in the 1960s questioned the ability of the FVI to account for short-term demand, supply, and price equilibrium, and, for this reason, the BCPI and PPI were added to the fee formula. Over 30 years of data are now available to evaluate whether adding the BCPI and PPI did, in fact, help explain short-term market fluctuations. This analysis shows, as earlier studies did, that, if tracking the private forage market is the primary objective, then the fee formula should have included only the FVI. Including the BCPI and, especially, the PPI has caused calculated grazing fees to fall further and further behind private land lease rates. Had the $1.23 base fee in the PRIA formula been indexed by only the FVI, the federal grazing fee would have been $3.84/AUM instead of $1.35/AUM in 2000. It is time to consider the feasibility of a competitive bid system for public lands, or, at the very least, adopt a new fee formula that generates more equitable grazing fees.

Cody, B. A. 1996. Grazing Fees: An Overview. CRS Report 96-450 ENR. Congressional Research Service. Washington, DC. (May 21, 1996).

      Grazing Impacts on Riparian Resources

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Livestock and Water

Kauffman, J. B., A. S. Thorpe, E. N. J. Brookshire. 2004. Livestock exclusion and belowground ecosystem responses in riparian meadows of eastern Oregon. Ecological Appl. 14(6): 1671-1679.

Belsky, A. J., A. Matzke, S. Uselman. 1999. Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. J. Soil and Water Conserv. 54(1): 419-431.

The best review available on the impacts of livestock grazing on riparian resources. Belsky, et al. reviewed more than 100 papers on the subject and discovered that no study showed riparian areas benefited from the presence of livestock, and most showed damage. Available at http://www.onda.org/library/papers/index.html.

Graphics: Riparian Degradation and Recovery after Grazing. USDI-BLM, USDA-Forest Service. 1995. Rangeland Reform 94 Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Bureau of Land Management. Washington, DC: 3-44 47.

Forest Guardians. "Endangered Streamside Forests" (factsheet)

Cascadia Times, The Big Dry

      Grazing Impacts on Sensitive Species

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Grazing Impacts on Threatened and Endangered Species

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Livestock versus Wildlife

Wilcove, D. S., D. Rothstein, J Dubow, A Phillips, E. Losos. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States: assessing the relative importance of habitat destruction, alien species, pollution, overexploitation and disease. BioScience 48(8): 607-615.

Flather, C. H. and L. A. Joyce. 1994. Species endangerment patterns in the United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-241. USDA-Forest Service. Fort Collins, CO.

Smith, R. 2005. Impacts to Wildlife Resulting from Livestock Grazing at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station. Forest Guardians. Santa Fe, NM.

Witzeman, B. 2001. Grazing threatens Arizona's wildlife. Catus Wren-dition (Mar-Apr 2001). Maricopa Audubon Society, AZ.

Monti, L. "Threats to Amphibians: Grazing"

Gallizioli, S. 1977. Ovegrazing on desert bighorn ranges. Trans. Desert Bighorn Council 1977: 21-23.

      Grazing, Forests and Fires

Center for Biological Diversity, Livestock Grazing, Fire Regimes, and Tree Densities

Forest Guardians, Livestock Grazing and the Forest Health "Crisis"

Moir, W. Ponderosa pine fire ecology. USDA-Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Flagstaff, AZ.

National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, Livestock Major Factor in Unhealthy Forests

      Grazing Impacts: General Resources

GAO. 1991. Rangeland management: comparison of rangeland condition reports. RCED-91-191. General Accounting Office. Washington, DC.

BEFORE and AFTER Grazing Diagram by Karen Klitz, featured in Witzeman, B. 2001. An educational tool about cattle grazing. Catus Wren-dition (Mar-Apr 2001). Maricopa Audubon Society, AZ.

The Great Old Broads for Wilderness has published a 23-page booklet with color photographs and essays by key activists on the myriad impacts of livestock grazing on public lands and resources.

Great Old Broads for Wilderness
PO Box 2924
Durango, Colorado 81302
970-385-9577
http://www.greatoldbroads.org

Coalition for Sonoran Desert Protection. 2001. Livestock Grazing and the Sonoran Desert Protection Plan: A Conservation Perspective. Tucson, AZ. 54 pages.

National Resources Defense Council / EarthJustice. Livestock Grazing and the Environment (factsheet).

Hudak, M. Commercial Livestock Production on Federal Public Lands: Environmental Destruction at Taxpayer Expense (June 29, 2000).

Taylor, S. T. 1998. DE-RANGED: The Bureau of Land Management and the Plight of the American West. Voice of the Environment. Bolinas, CA.

      Comprehensive Literature Reviews

Allison Jones. 2001. Review and Analysis of Cattle Grazing Effects in the Arid West, with Implications for BLM Grazing Management in Southern Utah. Wild Utah Project. Salt Lake City, Utah. Available at http://rangenet.org/directory/jonesa/litrev.html.

      Public Lands Grazing Legal Resources

Bureau of Land Management. 2002. Digest of grazing decisions issued during the period July 1, 1993 - October 10, 2001. IBLA vols. 127-155. USDI-BLM; Interior Board of Land Appeals. Washington, DC. 74 pages. (May 2002).

Baldwin, P. and B. Cody. 1996. Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States. CRS Report 96-97 A. Congressional Research Service. Washington, DC.

Natural Resources Defense Council, Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance, et al. 1992. How not to be cowed-- livestock grazing on the public lands: an owner's manual. SUWA. Salt Lake City, UT. (second edition, April 1992).

Oregon Natural Desert Association Index/Summary Significant Grazing Decisions

Baldwin, P. 1994. Legal Issues Related to Livestock Watering in Federal Grazing Districts. CRS Report 94-688 A. Congressional Research Service. Washington, DC.

Forest Guardians, Dislodging the Sacred Cow: An Index and Summary of Significant Grazing Litigation

Western Watersheds Project, Legal Document Archives

Laird Lucas, Grazing and Federal Public Lands Law

      Other Online Grazing Bibliographies and Resources

AndyKerr.net Livestock Grazing Page

Cascadia Times Cattle and Range Resources

Forest Guardians Livestock Grazing Bibliography (searchable, annotated)

Oregon Natural Desert Association Resource Library

The Public Lands Grazing Activist, Grazing Related Research

Anderson, S. "Threats to Amphibians: Grazing and Wildlife" (May 1993)

      Grazing Related Links


NPLGC Steering Committee Organizations

Public Lands Grazing Activist Organizations and Resources

Predator Protection Organizations and Networks

      Public Lands Grazing Quotes

Grazing Permit Buyout Quotes

AndyKerr.net Livestock Grazing Page


Excerpts from the works of Aldo Leopold

Forest Guardians Grazing Quotes Gallery



Third NPLGC Letter to Grazing Permittees

Second NPLGC Letter to Grazing Permittees

First NPLGC Letter to Grazing Permittees

NPLGC's Response to Rep. McInnis' Letter to Federal Grazing Permitees re. Voluntary Grazing Permit Buyout

Conservation Organizations Send Grazing Letters to Congress (May 11, 2004)

Rep. Grijalva's (D-AZ) Drought Letter to Congress (April 26, 2004)

Response to Public Lands Council Press Release on Voluntary Grazing Permit Buyout